See, for example, G. See also M. Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch 2 vols. Geburtstag eds. Kollmann, W. Whose blood is imbibed is not clear in the Aramaic. It is reasonable, however, to posit that the giants sin by consuming animals and drinking their blood. Accord- ing to this manuscript, 1 En. They ate the labors of men.
As they were unable to supply them, the giants grew bold against them and devoured the men. They began to sin against birds, animals, reptiles and fish, and to eat the flesh of each other. And they drank the blood. They grew in accordance with their greatness. They taught themselves and their wives charms and enchantments. In 4QEna 1 iii 15—16 there is not enough space to reconstruct the text of GSync Knibb and Milik both reasonably see the Aramaic as closer to GPan. GSync includes a reference to the giants eating human flesh, the placement of which is at- tributed by Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.
One explanation, voiced by Bhayro, The Shemihazah and Asael Narrative, , is that Syncel- lus or one of his sources such as Annianus and Panodorus glossed the information from Jub. The Aramaic here is extant; it says rather that they began to kill men 4QEna 1 iii This term, however, is not extant in the corresponding passages of the Aramaic Enoch texts. They begin by eating the toil of the humans. This does not sat- GSync as a late gloss derived from Jubilees. It would suggest rather that the Animal Apoca- lypse and Jubilees attest an Enochic tradition preserved in Syncellus. While the significance of GSync is not fully clear, it is reasonably considered a witness to a variant ancient Eno- chic gigantological tradition.
The view that Jub. If one takes the height recorded in 1 Enoch 7 literally, it becomes difficult to imagine the giants drowning in the flood, since, according to Gen , the height of the water reached only fifteen cubits above the mountain tops. According to 1 Enoch 10 the giants die physically in a war against each another rather than perish in the flood, as dis- cussed below. Given that many Second Temple works show familiarity with the trope that the offspring of the Watchers die in the flood e.
See also H. It presumably refers to agricultural produce, following the view that the consumption of meat did not begin until after the flood Gen —5; but see In Qoheleth the Hebrew lm[ repeatedly refers to everything that a person produces during his or her lifetime and the effort therein involved e. The term signifies labor associated with eating and drinking as in , and So, as suggested by GPan, they eat creatures from all catego- ries of the animal kingdom — beings that fly, walk, creep and swim — and, their appetites still not sated, they proceed to eat one another.
Watchers interprets Genesis in a way that expands the scope of the threat posed by the offspring of the sons of the Watchers. The angels do not punish the giants by overpowering them militarily. The destructive tendencies of the giants are inextricably linked to their appetites — they harm the world and each other because they cannot control their appetites.
This has disas- trous consequences for both them and the world. This is the case, for example, in the Book of Giants. Flint; Grand Rapids, Mich.
These texts are available in S. Pfann et al.
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Major studies of the work include L. Several commentators reasonably understand 4Q as the beginning of the composition or at least as the earliest part of the narrative that is extant. Unfortunately, the key texts are highly fragmentary. There is no sur- viving reference in the composition to the giants drinking blood. Neverthe- less, 4Q 1 provides an impression of the destructive rampages of the giants on the earth. Note also L. This is possible and would suit the context. In this case it would be a parallel, as Puech notes, to 1 En. However, not enough of the word survives to reconstruct it with full confidence.
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On the photo at this point the text is obscured by what appears to be a large smudge. This is not on the original. Rather, there is a hole in the manuscript that, presumably because of the lighting when the photograph was taken, looks like an ink spot. The key letters are thus obscured on the photo.
Just below the hole on the original it is easy to discern the bottom of a final nun. This helps establish the view that the giants in general not just one did not find satisfaction when eating.
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Line 8 mentions destruction and death. As Stuckenbruck has aptly ar- gued, this fragment, while not preserving a full account, describes the violent activities of the giants. Two later compositions support this interpretation. The word is prefaced with the bet preposition. For the original edition, consult D.
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An English translation is also available in M. The affinity between this work and the Qumran Book of Giants suggests that it may preserve Early Jewish traditions regarding the Watchers as well. The extraordinary amount of food and drink consumed by the Canaanite king Og, who is regarded as a giant Deut , is de- scribed in the late rabbinic work Tractate Sopherim 43b; Soncino edition.
See A. Jeremias et al.
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This, how- ever, cannot be stated conclusively. The fragment relies on Genesis 1. Gen Gen ; ; One of the archangels probably Gabriel; cf. Rather they kill one another and fall upon the sword Jub Reminiscent of the revelation of weapon-making in 1 En , the introduction of the sword among the giants foments their own violent tendencies.
They proceed to destroy one another. The dangerous appetites of the giants also play a role in the allegorical for- mulation of the Watchers myth in the Animal Apocalypse. The giants are re- configured as elephants, camels and asses 1 En ; cf. This makes sense. As mentioned above with regard to 1 Enoch 7, the giants consume creatures in all categories of life on earth — animals that fly, swim, walk and creep. The reliance of the fragment on Genesis 1 sharpens the perspective that the giants threatened the entire natural order and thus creation itself. Albani, J. Frey and A. Mohr [P. Siebeck], , 59— The theme of antediluvian canni- balism in Jubilees suggests that the spread of evil constitutes a disruption of the vegetarian- ism that characterized life in Eden cf.
They are portrayed not as victims of the giants but rather as accomplices who commit the same deeds as the giants.
Full text issues
After describing the threefold division of the giants discussed above , each generation of which kills the next, it states that men began to kill their neighbors. For further treatment of the different accounts of primordial history in Jubilees 5 and 7, see Segal, The Book of Jubilees, — The elephants aylyp , for example, correspond to the Nephilim aylypn. The motif of the fear of the angels towards their own children is not in Watchers. But in the passage the bulls are devoured.
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This corresponds to 1 En — the giants consume each other. They terrify the entire earth but in terms of what they eat they stick to fare with a heavenly origin — the Watchers and themselves. This is also Milik may be right, but certainty is difficult to achieve because it remains an unsolved problem as to why GSync 1 En makes this threefold distinction in the first place, as discussed above.
See also P. See W.